Free information index
Enforcement of contact orders in UK
Prior to 1989 there had been a number of attempts by magistrates to fine or imprison parents who obstructed contact orders, but they were all overturned by the Court of Appeal.
The breakthrough came in 1989 when the Court of Appeal upheld the ruling of Judge Appleby who had imprisoned Beverley Cox for being 'bloody minded' in her obstruction of access - C v C  1 FLR 462-9;  Fam Law p 220-1;  Fam Law p 235.
In August 1995 at Derby County Court, Judge Orrell jailed a mother for breach of a contact order. She was only released when she admitted her error. Contact has worked OK since - Z v Z  Fam Law p 255.
On 11 October 1996 at the Court of Appeal, Ward LJ upheld committal of a mother for breach of a contact order. The mother, who was opposed to contact, was ordered to attend a contact centre and was given six week sentence suspended for six months. She flouted the order and was committed to prison. The Court of Appeal upheld the ruling, saying:
- The welfare of the child
is a material consideration, but not the paramount consideration
Judge Peter Smith (at  Fam Law p 138) commenting on A v N speaks of a dramatic increase in applications by fathers seeking to enforce contact orders. He feels that the law and prevailing culture have changed and that contact orders are now being enforced. He says that although committal is very much a weapon of the last resort, it must be in the court's armoury.
Contact Enforcement -  Fam Law p134
At a seminar on 'Enforcing Contact' held in Taunton in November 1996, Dr Martin Gay (a child and adolescent psychiatrist) addressed a group of CWOs, GALs and lawyers.
It is reported that there was overall agreement that there was little mileage in the two main sanctions for defying contact orders - committal or change of residence. Dr Gay said there were no easy answer and certainly no short term solution. Judge Darwall-Smith said it was important to always keep the door open and adopt a softly softly approach to win recalcitrant parents round and move the case forward.
It seems to me that they haven't understood the problem!
Contact implacably opposed..
Stevens, Robert; Justice of the Peace, (1993) 157 (41) 9 Oct, p 648-51.
Contact opposed-a recurring dilemma: part 2.. Stevens, Robert; Justice
of the Peace & Local Government Law, (1994) 158 (29) 16 Jul, p 463-5;
(1994) 158 (30) 23 Jul, p 481-3
Re M (A Minor) (Contact:
Conditions)  1 FLR 272
By David Cannon
Join us in campaigning for equality and justice.